LODS/LODSB/LODSW/LODSD/LODSQ

Load String

Opcodes

Hex Mnemonic Encoding Long Mode Legacy Mode Description
REX.W + AD LODSQ A Valid N.E. Load qword at address (R)SI into RAX.
AD LODSD A Valid Valid For legacy mode, Load dword at address DS:(E)SI into EAX. For 64-bit mode load dword at address (R)SI into EAX.
AD LODSW A Valid Valid For legacy mode, Load word at address DS:(E)SI into AX. For 64-bit mode load word at address (R)SI into AX.
AC LODSB A Valid Valid For legacy mode, Load byte at address DS:(E)SI into AL. For 64-bit mode load byte at address (R)SI into AL.
REX.W + AD LODS m64 A Valid N.E. Load qword at address (R)SI into RAX.
AD LODS m32 A Valid Valid For legacy mode, Load dword at address DS:(E)SI into EAX. For 64-bit mode load dword at address (R)SI into EAX.
AD LODS m16 A Valid Valid For legacy mode, Load word at address DS:(E)SI into AX. For 64-bit mode load word at address (R)SI into AX.
AC LODS m8 A Valid Valid For legacy mode, Load byte at address DS:(E)SI into AL. For 64-bit mode load byte at address (R)SI into AL.

Instruction Operand Encoding

Op/En Operand 0 Operand 1 Operand 2 Operand 3
A NA NA NA NA

Description

Loads a byte, word, or doubleword from the source operand into the AL, AX, or EAX register, respectively. The source operand is a memory location, the address of

3-618 Vol. 2A LODS/LODSB/LODSW/LODSD/LODSQ—Load String

which is read from the DS:EDI or the DS:SI registers (depending on the address-size attribute of the instruction, 32 or 16, respectively). The DS segment may be overridden with a segment override prefix.

At the assembly-code level, two forms of this instruction are allowed: the "explicitoperands" form and the "no-operands" form. The explicit-operands form (specified with the LODS mnemonic) allows the source operand to be specified explicitly. Here, the source operand should be a symbol that indicates the size and location of the source value. The destination operand is then automatically selected to match the size of the source operand (the AL register for byte operands, AX for word operands, and EAX for doubleword operands). This explicit-operands form is provided to allow documentation; however, note that the documentation provided by this form can be misleading. That is, the source operand symbol must specify the correct type (size) of the operand (byte, word, or doubleword), but it does not have to specify the correct location. The location is always specified by the DS:(E)SI registers, which must be loaded correctly before the load string instruction is executed.

The no-operands form provides "short forms" of the byte, word, and doubleword versions of the LODS instructions. Here also DS:(E)SI is assumed to be the source operand and the AL, AX, or EAX register is assumed to be the destination operand. The size of the source and destination operands is selected with the mnemonic: LODSB (byte loaded into register AL), LODSW (word loaded into AX), or LODSD (doubleword loaded into EAX).

After the byte, word, or doubleword is transferred from the memory location into the AL, AX, or EAX register, the (E)SI register is incremented or decremented automatically according to the setting of the DF flag in the EFLAGS register. (If the DF flag is 0, the (E)SI register is incremented; if the DF flag is 1, the ESI register is decremented.) The (E)SI register is incremented or decremented by 1 for byte operations, by 2 for word operations, or by 4 for doubleword operations.

In 64-bit mode, use of the REX.W prefix promotes operation to 64 bits. LODS/LODSQ load the quadword at address (R)SI into RAX. The (R)SI register is then incremented or decremented automatically according to the setting of the DF flag in the EFLAGS register.

The LODS, LODSB, LODSW, and LODSD instructions can be preceded by the REP prefix for block loads of ECX bytes, words, or doublewords. More often, however, these instructions are used within a LOOP construct because further processing of the data moved into the register is usually necessary before the next transfer can be made. See "REP/REPE/REPZ /REPNE/REPNZ—Repeat String Operation Prefix" in Chapter 4 of the Intel®64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual,Volume 2B, for a description of the REP prefix.

Pseudo Code

IF AL = SRC; (* Byte load *)
	AL = SRC; (* Byte load *)
	IF DF = 0
		(E)SI = (E)SI + 1;
	ELSE
		(E)SI = (E)SI - 1;
	FI;
ELSE
	IF AX = SRC; (* Word load *)
		IF DF = 0
			(E)SI = (E)SI + 2;
		ELSE
			(E)SI = (E)SI - 2;
			IF;
		FI;
	ELSE
		IF EAX = SRC; (* Doubleword load *)
			IF DF = 0
				(E)SI = (E)SI + 4;
			ELSE
				(E)SI = (E)SI - 4;
			FI;
		ELSE
			IF RAX = SRC; (* Quadword load *)
				IF DF = 0
					(R)SI = (R)SI + 8;
				ELSE
					(R)SI = (R)SI - 8;
				FI;
			FI;
		FI;
	FI;
FI;

Flags Affected

None.

Exceptions

64-Bit Mode Exceptions

Exception Description
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.
#AC(0) If alignment checking is enabled and an unaligned memory reference is made while the current privilege level is 3.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#GP(0) If the memory address is in a non-canonical form.
#SS(0) If a memory address referencing the SS segment is in a non-canonical form.

Compatibility Mode Exceptions

Same exceptions as in protected mode.

Virtual-8086 Mode Exceptions

Exception Description
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.
#AC(0) If alignment checking is enabled and an unaligned memory reference is made.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#SS(0) If a memory operand effective address is outside the SS segment limit.
#GP(0) If a memory operand effective address is outside the CS, DS, ES, FS, or GS segment limit.

Real-Address Mode Exceptions

Exception Description
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.
#SS If a memory operand effective address is outside the SS segment limit.
#GP If a memory operand effective address is outside the CS, DS, ES, FS, or GS segment limit.

Protected Mode Exceptions

Exception Description
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.
#AC(0) If alignment checking is enabled and an unaligned memory reference is made while the current privilege level is 3.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#SS(0) If a memory operand effective address is outside the SS segment limit.
#GP(0) If a memory operand effective address is outside the CS, DS, ES, FS, or GS segment limit. If the DS, ES, FS, or GS register contains a NULL segment selector.